Eczema — acute or chronic, cannot be transmitted by contact, inflammatory disease of skin having the allergic nature, is manifested in a variety of lesions on the skin, sometimes with burning, itching and a tendency to relapse. The name of the disease was due to inflammation in the form of bubbles, similar to bubbles of boiling water (“eczeo,” Greek. – “to boil”) – eczematous vesicles.

Besides, it’s still polietiologic disease, i.e., to its manifestations may result from many factors, but each of them separately can not be the cause of the disease. Thus, eczema occurs as a manifestation of disorders in the three body systems: the nervous, immune, endocrine. Often eczema is a signal in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract: cholecystitis, gastritis with changes in gastric acidity, enterocolitis, chronic constipation and the presence of worm infestation in the body.

Causes of eczema

All the reasons why eczema occurs, can be divided into external(endogenous) domestic and(exogenous). Due to the fact that the disease is allergic in nature, the frequent causes of eczema on hands include the impact of exogenous allergens. These include:

  • chemical and vegetable dyes for clothing;
  • food dyes and preservatives;
  • chemicals and fragrances in household products;
  • rubber products – gloves, shoes and leather goods with the addition of the rubber;
  • preservatives and dyes in cosmetics. This is especially true of nail Polish and hair – if the family inherited skin sensitivity, eczema can appear not only in the person who uses these tools. Risk of infection are exposed to all the relatives living in the same area;
  • PPD is a component that is included in hair dyes. Eczema on the head is most likely to occur because of this component;
  • jewelry. Moreover, the stones do not cause allergies. Only the metals – gold, silver, platinum. Sometimes eczema occurs as a result of allergic reactions not to the metal, and its coating of a mixture of non-precious metals and chemicals;
  • jewelry and accessories – watches, sunglasses;
  • drugs;
  • plants and pet hair;
  • dust;
  • insect bites;
  • fungal infections;
  • food;
  • varnishes, paints, building materials;
  • eczema often occurs as a reaction to sunlight or cold.

Endogenous (internal) causes of eczema.

  • Microbes in the foci of infection in the tonsils with angina, carious teeth, in healing the wound.
  • Diseases caused by worms.
  • Disorders in the endocrine system – diabetes mellitus, thyrotoxicosis, impaired hormone production by the adrenal glands.
  • Still, the key mechanism that triggers the eczema is an allergic reaction.

    In modern medicine, allergic processes are explained as a pathological immune reaction, accompanied by damage and inflammation of the body tissues, therefore in the pathogenesis of eczematous process, main importance is given to various immune defects. It is known that patients with eczema expressed dysgammaglobulinemia (excess IgG, IgE and IgM deficiency), reduced the number of functionally active T-lymphocytes, decreased total number of T cells, an altered ratio of helper and suppressor subpopulations of immune cells, so the number of b lymphocytes increased. The most pronounced immune response is detected in patients, carriers of isoantigens A, M, N and RH D+.

    Weakness of immunity is manifested in ignoring or too strong a response to permanent presence of microbial and bacterial antigens with the formation of chronic recurring inflammation in the skin. However, there is understanding of eczema and how neurogenic diseases caused by nervous tension and stress.

    Classification and types of eczema

    Since the occurrence of eczema contributes to a number of factors, there are several types of eczema depending on the cause, location of affected areas and the nature of the manifestations of the disease

    True or idiopathic eczema – the process of the disease begins acutely with the appearance of vesicles with serous content. Affected skin reddens, appear small cracks, itching. If the disease becomes chronic, the swelling increases, and small erosions occur cracks. Acute onset process gradually turns into a chronic problem that can last years.

    Skin is kind of true. The rash appears on the lateral surface of the fingers and toes, the palms and on the soles. It is definitely chronic and the itching and burning stronger than normal eczema.

    Microbial eczema develops when the cause of the disease are staphylococci or streptococci, around and over the infected wounds, scratches, abrasions, trophic ulcers. The skin is covered with purulent crusts. This kind of eczema often on the legs. There are several forms of microbial eczema: numular; varicose veins; post-traumatic; seksitarina; eczema of the nipple.

    Mycotic (fungal) eczema occurs when the skin lesions with fungus. Most commonly, it occurs in the area of nails and toes. This is the most infectious eczema, which all so are afraid of Contracting. Fungal eczema itself is not contagious. People can only pick up fungus that may cause or may not cause eczema.

    Seborrheic eczema occurs in violation of the sebaceous glands. It develops where they are most: on the head, between the shoulder blades, behind the knees, on the forehead. Inflammation yellow or yellow-brown. They are presented in the form of plaques or scales, which are formed in different patterns.

    Occupational eczema occurs as a result of long contact with a skin irritant agent . Eczema may appear at any open in the process area of skin after a single or long-term effects . Signs of it are the same as the true eczema.

    There are two types of eczema on the nature of the rash:

  • Dry eczema is characterized by dry skin, cracking, redness, peeling, itching. Localized on the hands and feet.
  • Weeping eczema is characterized by a strong reddening of the skin, rash of small blisters or a wet spot. Manifests itself on the head under the hair, on the inner side of the elbows and knees and chest. Accompanied by severe itching, burning.
  • The symptoms of eczema

    The main symptom of eczema is rash. Irritating burning sensation and itching occurs regardless of the type of disease. If the eczema is dry, bubbles with the liquid should not appear. For dry eczema is also characterized by very dry skin.

    If you see small bubbles, it is a weeping eczema. If left untreated, over time, some of the bubbles turn into knots with pus. Scales and festering sores – also symptoms of eczema.

    Diagnosis of eczema

    The diagnosis of acute eczema put on the basis of its features. Eczema is one of the most common diseases of the skin with a difficult and rare diagnosis to the etiological factor. Inflammatory changes in acute eczema spread to neighboring areas.

    The key mechanism that triggers the eczema is an allergic reaction. © Depositphotos

    It is a polymorphic disease, i.e. the affected area is localized several stages of its development. The acute form of eczema is often quickly stopped without treatment, but can also meet difficult to treat form. It is often after treatment can give a relapse. The predominant clinical symptom is itching, and only in the weeping stage begin to dominate pain symptoms.

    Sometimes it is possible to quickly diagnose the cause of the eczema in the lab, and sometimes long and fruitless.

    In any case you will need or to donate blood for allergodil, or to do Allergy tests on the skin. And in that and in other case will be to look for causing a reaction allergens and diagnosis — this is the fastest way to find out the cause of eczema, and therefore eliminate it.

    The treatment of eczema

    General recommendations for the treatment of eczema:

    • Consultation with your doctor. Eczema, the disease, though having common features, is individual, and therefore the treatment should take place under the supervision of a physician.
    • Essential rational healthy mode of life and nutrition .
    • Hygiene in all forms of eczema. But when extensive the lesions taking a bath or shower should be suspended. Prophylactic baths with infusions of chamomile, oak bark, etc. have a beneficial effect, calms itching.
    • Contraindicated garment of wool and synthetics.
    • Should exclude the use of household chemicals.

    Drug therapy includes:

  • Hormones in the form of ointments;
  • Antibacterial or antifungal ointments;
  • Anti-anxiety medications;
  • Vitamin complexes;
  • Antihistamines;
  • The immunomodulators.
  • People with a genetic predisposition to allergic diseases need a special diet for eczema. © Depositphotos

    Diet to treat eczema will have its own peculiarities in each specific case, but most often in the diet should be absent:

    • spicy dishes;
    • smoked foods;
    • alcohol;
    • canned foods, pickles;
    • coffee.

    The maximum should limit the use of:

    • salt;
    • citrus;
    • sweets and bakery products;
    • tea.

    Eczema assigned primarily lacto-vegetarian diet .

    To cook foods are best steamed or boil it.

    When dry eczema traditional treatments of eczema moisturize and soften the skin.

    • Clean a raw potato from the skin and finely grate. Press and wrap in a paper towel. Apply to the affected area four times daily.
    • Squeeze the juice from a potato and soak the sterile gauze bandage. To apply it for 15-20 minutes every day for 3 times.
    • If you have dry eczema on hands treatment consists in the superimposition of softening of the bandage with a mixture of cabbage and protein. You need to chop a sauerkraut in a blender and mix with egg white. Using a gauze bandage applied to the site of inflammation 2 times a day.
    • Eczema on elbows treated with boiled cabbage. Cabbage leaves should be boiled in milk and applied on the elbows 4-5 times a day.

    But if you want to know about the 5 most effective facial scrubs that are easy to repeat at home, read this article.